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This document provides build directions and
a high-level architecture for the DB-UML Modeling Tool. The architecture requirements, overview and
package structure are defined. The
architecture is not complete and several sections need to be added. In particular the sections on Transformers
need be completed.
To build DB-UML
you must be able to build ArgoUML first.
For directions on building ArgoUML, see:
To build DB-UML
you will need an SVN client, the release 5 (or higher) Java JDK and Apache
To check out the
latest version of DB-UML from SVN use:
DB-UML you must set the location of your ArgoUML build in the module.properties
file. For example:
sets the ArgoUML
root directory to “C:/argosvn/argo”.
This is used to locate ArgoUML classes needed by DB-UML. Also, the build will place the dbuml.jar in
ArgUML’s /ext folder so that ArgoUML
will install it as a module.
To build DB-UML
use the jar target:
You can use the
run target but this will actually run ArgoUML defined by argo.root.dir.
The following are general requirements for the architecture. The general architecture of a UML modeling
tool is shown in the following figure:
The UML GUI component
provides the GUI for the tool. The GUI
is specific to the UML model. It uses
the Model component to represent the elements of models and to store
models. It also uses Transformation
Tools. The tools accept
transformation definitions for transforming one model into another. For
database modeling tools the transformations need to access database catalogs.
The language used to model databases is a UML profile
called DB-UML (see UML Database Modeling).
As DB-UML is a UML profile it uses standard UML extension
mechanisms. Existing UML modeling tools
can be used to create DB-UML models.
However to be easy to use, the GUI of the modeling tool needs to be
specific to the DB-UML profile. Also the
GUI needs to provide access to transformations that are relevant for database
The model component should be based on the Meta Object
Facility (MOF). Model storage should use
the XML Metadata Interchange (XMI)
language. This provides interoperability
with other modeling tools and enables use of transformation tools
Transformation tools transform between models and
implementations or between models.
Currently there is no standard for a translation definition
language. However, standards and tools
supporting standards will be available in the future and the modeling tool
should be structured so that new tools can be integrated.
ArgoUML is used as a basis for
the DB-UML Modeling Tool. ArgoUML is an
open source UML modeling tool (see http://ArgoUML.tigris.org/
). The following diagram shows DB-UML
and ArgoUML components:
ArgoUML (package org.argouml.*)
implements a UML GUI providing diagrams, explorer trees, property sheets and
Argo implements a Model based on
the Metadata Repository project
(MDR). MDR is a Netbeans project that
implements an MOF repository (see http://mdr.netbeans.org/
). An implementation of the Java
Metadata Interface is provided (JMI).
ArgoUML has a “module”
architecture where modules can be added to extend behavior. Most of the database modeling tool has been
developed as an ArgoUML module. This
will allow future versions of ArgoUML to be utilized without large
changes. However, some minor changes to
ArgoUML are also necessary as there are areas of ArgoUML that can not be
ArgoUML Façade components
(package org.dbuml.argo.*) are implemented as an ArgoUML “module”. The GUI component implements GUI extensions
for the DB-UML profile. The extensions
add new diagrams, toolbars and menu items to facilitate models using the DBUML
The model component stands in
front of the ArgoUML Model to
insulate components from changes in ArgoUML.
It also provides a view of the UML model that is specific to the DB-UML
DB-UML components (package
org.dbuml.base.*) implement Controllers for the actions needed by the
tool. The Controllers implement
particular actions using the other components of DB-UML
DB-UML components implement
Transformers for the DB-UML profile.
These provide transformations between models or between models and
implementations. The Transformers
utilize a Catalog Interface for database metadata and utilize a Model component
to represent the model.
The Catalog Interface is generic
and uses standard JDBC metadata. It
allows the actual JDBC driver to be specified at runtime. A Database element defines the JDBC driver it
The Model component in DBUML is
an abstraction of the DB-UML profile.
(the Model component in the ArgoUML Façade is the realization of the
DB-UML profile using the ArgoUML Model)
DB-UML components have no dependencies on ArgoUML.
The above architecture can be
extended to fit the needs of a particular database. The ArgoUML Façade components can be extended
to provide additional ArgoUML GUI capabilities and additional model
implementations. And DB-UML can be
extended to provide additional model elements, controllers, transformers and
The above architecture implements
several important goals:
for the DB-UML profile must be “pluggable” into an existing UML tool. This leverages the functionality of an
existing tool and allows integration with future versions of a tool.
architecture must insulate controllers and transformers from a particular UML
tool so that they be used with other tools.
architecture must insulate controllers and transformers from the implementation
of the model.
should be possible to determine JDBC drivers at run-time.
should be possible to extend the DB-UML GUI and the DB-UML model for additional
The package structure of the
modeling tool isw shown in the following diagram:
The org.argouml packages implement the ArgoUML tool
providing a model implementation and a UML GUI.
The uml.ui package loads menu items defined in the
org.dbuml.argo package at initialization time.
These menu items added when the module is initialized. ArgoUML loads all “modules” in jars located in its “ext” folder during
initialization and call an initialization method. The method adds menu items to create database
deployment and schema diagrams.
The actual name of the module class to load is defined in
the manifest of the module jar. For example:
Created-By: 1.4.1 (Sun Microsystem Inc.)
Specification-Title: ArgoUML Dynamic Load Module
Implementation-Title: DBUML Module
Implementation-Vendor: test In the above manifest the menu item to
create is DBSchemaDiagramMenu.class.
Argo implements a Model based on the MOF. Access to the
model is through the façade ModelFacade.
ui & diagram
The ui and diagram packages implement the GUI extensions
for the DB-UML profile. Menu items are
add during module initialization to create Database Schema diagrams and to
create Database Deployment diagrams. The
DBSchemaDiagram class pictures Schemas and their owned elements. It is the equivalent of a class diagram and
extends the ArgoUML class diagram class
The DBDeployment class pictures Database elements. It is the equivalent of a deployment diagrams
and extends the ArgoUML deployment diagram class.
The diagrams define various actions to support the DB-UML
profile. For example, a Database figure
in a Database Deployment diagram has a “Connect to Catalog” action in its
pop-up menu. Actions delegate the actual
work to controllers in the org.dbuml.controller package. Actions can be defined as toolbars on
diagrams and as popup menus in figures on diagrams.
Actions can also be defined as Popup menus on the ArgoUML
Explorer. However, this in not part of
the “plug-in” architecture and currently, ArgoUML code must be changed to call
org.dbuml.argo provides an implementation of the DB-UML
profile using the ArgoUML model. ArgoDBModelFacade
is the ArgoUML implementation of the interface DBModelFacadeInterface (defined
in org.dbuml.model). ArgoDBModelFacade is the only
class to interface with ArgoUML’s model.
It actually only uses ArgoUML’s model façade classes and never directly
uses ArgoUML’s model implementation.
The org.dbuml.base packages implement the controllers,
transformers and catalog interface needed by the modeling tool. It also contains an abstraction of the
model. The packages are not dependent on the UML tool, the model
implementation or the database implementation.
DBUML components implement Controllers for the actions
needed by the tool. The Controllers implement
particular actions using the other components of DB-UML as in a “Model, View
NOTE: a review of the controller’s use of
Swing is necessary.
The transform classes provide transformations between
models or between models and implementations.
They access the
model via the model package and they access the catalog via the database
package. Transformers are invoked by
The actual implementation of the transformers is defined
by the implementation of the Factory interface.
A database supplier
provides an implementation of transformers or they can use the generic
The DBMetadataToDBUML transformer
generates a DBUML model based on catalog metadata. Catalog metadata is retrieved using the database
package and the model is generated using the model package. The transformer is used by the following
Import Schemas action from a Model Element. The buildSchema method is used to build a
Schema model element. No owned elements
of the Schema are built. These can be
built using other actions.
Import Tables action from a Schema Element. The buildTable method is used to build a
Table model element. All owned Column
elements of the Table are built. Index
constrains are added to the Table corresponding to Index definitions. If the Table completes any associations
(foreign key, reference, generalization, derivation) the associations are
Import Views action from a Schema Element. The buildView method is used to build a View
model element. All owned Column elements
of the View are built. If the View completes any derivation associations the
associations are added.
provides methods for generating SQL statements from a DBUML model. It uses
Velocity which is a Java-based template engine.
We used DBUML model in Velocity context to produce DDL statements
designed with a Velocity template. See Velocity
User Guide and Velocity
Developer’s Guide for information about Velocity Template Language (VTL).
To generate SQL DDL statements for tables we used a Velocity
template similar to the following:
## SQL 92 source template
## Create Table
#set($colnum = $Table.getColumnsVector().size())
CREATE TABLE $Namespace.$Table.getFixedName()
#foreach ($col in $Table.getColumnsVector())
#set($colSize = $col.getLength())
#set($colScale = $col.getScale())
#set($colDefault = $col.getDefault())
$col.getFixedName() $col.getTypeName()#if($velocityCount < $colnum),
The template generates the following DDL statement:
followed Velocity’s fundamental pattern in GenericDBUMLToSQL.genCreateSQL()
method (see Velocity
Developer’s Guide for more information about the pattern).
That is, we performed the following:
1. Initialized the Velocity engine.
VelocityEngine engine = new
2. Created a velocity context.
VelocityContext context = new VelocityContext();
3. Added DBUML model to the context.
4. Chose a template.
Template templateCreateTables =
5. Merged the template and DBUML model
to produce the output.
StringWriter writer = new StringWriter();
DBUML Velocity templates are located in "org/dbuml/base/transform"
To be supplied.
To be supplied.
To be supplied.
To be supplied.
To be supplied.
The model package represents the UML profile, DBUML. It “models” the database specific profile and
it serves as a façade to the model implementation. The DBModelFacade class is an abstract class
implementing DBModelFacadeInterface. All
classes use DBModelFacade to access the model.
Information is exchanged between DBModelFacade and other
components such as controllers or transformers is through DBElements. DBElements are contrainers for information
about database entities. They are used
only to pass data back and forth. They
are not used as a complete model.
The actual implementation of DBModelFacade is defined by
the implementation of DBSchemaDiagramMenu which is loaded by ArgoUML as a
pluggable module. Only one
implementation of DBModelFacade can be in place for an instance of ArgoUML.
The database package is the interface to a database catalog. The DBMetadata class keeps a database
Connection and a DatabaseMetadata object for the metadata at connect time.
A DBMetadata object is created for a model element
(representing a database) when the “Connect to Catalog” action is chosen from
the element’s popup menu. The DBMetadata
object is associated with the model element through the “database” attribute.
A database supplier provides an implementation of
DBMetadata or they can use the generic implementation. The implementation is created by a database
supplier’s implementation of the Factory interface.
DBMetadata objects are collected by the DBMetadataCache
DBMetadata uses Connectionfactory to connect to a
catalog. The information needed to connect
is in tagged values of the model element representing the database. For example, the following model element
represents a Tiger database.
The factory package creates the actual implementations of
DBMetadata and the transform interfaces.
The database supplier provides a Factory implementation or they can use
the generic implementation. The name of
the Factory implementation is defined as a tagged value of the model element
representing the database (see previous section).
This provides the ability to use different types of
catalogs (metadata implementations) and different types of transformers within
the same instance of ArgoUML.